INTRODUCTION

There are 10,426 bird species in the world, according to a survey by BirdLife International. In Brazil there are approximately 20% of this total. According to the Brazilian Committee for Ornithological Records (CBRO), 1,919 species of birds are found in Brazilian lands. For this reason, Brazil is among the three countries with the greatest diversity of birds on the planet.

These birds are distributed across the six Brazilian biomes: Amazon, Caatinga, Cerrado, Atlantic Forest, Pantanal and Pampa. We still have the Marine Coastal System and the bird species from that region.

What is Biome?

It is a geographical area with specific characteristics, defined by climate, soil, altitude, vegetation and other rating criteria. In each biome there is a community formed by plants and animals that live in a balanced and stable way, with similar climatic conditions of a determined region.

AMAZON

The Amazon is the largest biome in Brazil. It occupies a territory of 4.2 million square kilometers. It means 49.5% of the country's area. The Amazon rainforest is the largest rainforest in the world. The biome covers the states of Amazonas, Acre, Amapá, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima and Tocantins. In addition to Brazilian lands, it is also present in 8 neighboring countries

Everything in the Amazon is great. It has the largest hydrographic basin in the world, covering about 3.8 million square kilometers in the Brazilian part. In its waters there are 17 out of 20 fish species in South America. There are 1,100 affluent rivers. The Amazon River, the main river, flows into the Atlantic Ocean and releases 175 million liters of water per second to the sea.

In the Amazon biome there are about 30 thousand species of plants and more than 1,300 species of birds.

Araçari-castanho
Pteroglossus castanotis
Arara-vermelha
Ara chloropterus

Some regions of the Amazon are still intact. The man has yet to reach these locations. But, in all states, it is possible to do bird watching tourism, with the help of guides. Without a doubt, a dream for any bird watcher in Brazil. An adventure in the Amazon rainforest can guarantee great records, beautiful photos and stories within the universe of birdwatching.

Caatinga

The name caatinga means, in Tupi-Guarani, “white forest”. The biome is located in the northeast of Brazil. It covers the states of Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará, Maranhão, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, Sergipe and part of Minas Gerais. It corresponds to an area of 344 thousand square kilometers, about 10% of the Brazilian territory.

The biome has a semi-arid climate, vegetation with few leaves and adapted for periods of drought. In this region, rainfall is scarce and droughts can last for a long time.

In dry areas, with shallow and stony soil, the biome has shrubs and tortuous plants. Most plants have thorns. Local residents wear leather clothing as a means of protection.

In the caatinga biome there are about 600 species of birds. An interesting adventure for any birder traveling through these lands.

Estrelinha-ametista
Calliphlox amethystina

Cerrado

The cerrado is the second largest biome in the country, covering 23.3% of the territory and is located in the central part of Brazil. It has more than 2 million square kilometers and covers the states of Amapá, Bahia, Federal District, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Piauí Rondônia, São Paulo and Tocantins.

The climate is tropical, quite hot, with rainy summer and dry winter. In this region there are many river springs. For this reason, the cerrado biome is considered as the birthplace of the waters of Brazil, as its springs feed eight of the 12 hydrographic regions of the country.

With its rocky and plateau formations, the Brazilian savannah is a great option for those who enjoy beautiful scenery and nature photography.

Parque Nacional Chapada dos Guimarães
Parque Nacional Chapada dos Guimarães

The fauna of the cerrado is exuberant. It is the richest savannah in biodiversity in the world, with 30% of the diversity of living beings identified in the country. Therefore, the bird watcher has a great experience when visiting this region. There are 856 species of birds recorded in the cerrado. Bird watching in the cerrado is a fun and exciting adventure.

Chifre-de-ouro
Heliactin bilophus
Foto: Catarina Tokatjian

Atlantic forest

The Atlantic Forest is an important set of ecosystems and forests. With 1.1 million square kilometers, it corresponds to 13% of the territory and is present in 17 Brazilian states.

But, due to deforestation and environmental degradation, today the vegetation corresponds to only 12% of the original forest.

145 million Brazilians live in the Atlantic Forest territory and concentrate 70% of Brazil's economic production. Therefore, there is a pressure for deforestation and the concern to preserve the biome, recover deforested areas and guarantee the species' survival.

Parque Nacional de Aparados da Serra
Parque Nacional de Aparados da Serra

The Atlantic Forest has 20 thousand different types of plants. In fauna, there are 850 species of birds. Its birds have a huge diversity of colors, which enchants not only birdwatchers from Brazil, but also visitors from other nationalities who land in the country.

Saíra-sete-cores
Tangara seledon
Saíra-azul
Dacnis Cayana
Saíra-militar
Tangara Cyanocephala

Pampa

The term Pampa means “flat region”. With 176 thousand square kilometers, it is the only biome restricted to only one state, Rio Grande do Sul. The temperate climate, with temperatures between 13 and 17 degrees Celsius, guarantees specific conditions for this region. One is the formation of large grass fields.

The Pampa has one of the richest ecosystems in terms of flora and fauna. The region has a genetic and cultural heritage of national and global importance. Some researchers point out that about 40% of the animals are endemic to the region.
Alguns pesquisadores apontam que cerca de 40% dos animais são endêmicos da região.

In the Pampa biome there is a wide variety of insects and small animals, favoring the growth of birds that feed on these animals. Thus, it is one of the regions of the planet where birdlife is most conserved.

In total, the Pampa has 476 species of birds, which makes the region an unmissable attraction for bird watchers in Brazil and abroad.

João-de-barro
Furnarius rufus

Pantanal

The Pantanal is the smallest Brazilian biome. With 150 thousand square kilometers, it covers 1.8% of the Brazilian territory. It seems little, but it is the largest floodplain in the world. Because of its rich biodiversity, it is considered a “World Natural H” by UNESCO.

The Pantanal biome is the most preserved in Brazil, with 84% of its original landscape. For this reason, it is a shelter for endangered species.

The Pantanal has two very different seasons. The flood season, which runs from October to April. It is the dry season, between May and October, when the rivers dry up, forming ponds that are full of fish. This is the best time to observe animals, as the plains dry up and mammals go looking for food and water in these ponds.

Also in this dry period, tourists go to the wetland to see the jaguar. It is the best place in the world to spot the largest feline in the Americas.

With 582 species of birds, the Pantanal has become a mandatory itinerary for birdwatching in Brazil and has attracted more and more foreign tourists interested in birdwatching and also registering wildlife in this region.

Martim-pescador-grande
Megaceryle torquata
Ariramba-de-cauda-ruiva
Galbula ruficauda

Marine Coastal System

This marine biome is a transition between ecosystems on the continent and the ocean and extends over an area of 4.5 million square kilometers from north to south of Brazil. The rich biodiversity is found in mangroves, coral reefs, dunes, rocky shores, beaches, cliffs, islands, lagoons, restingas, marshes and estuaries. Along this system, there are 1,300 species of fish, 19 of which are threatened with extinction.

In this environment, there are about 150 species of coastal and sea birds that live in this coastal strip in search of food. Brazilian pelagic birds also attract birdwatchers, who record across the country's coastline.

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Rogério SiqueiraBiomes